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The common feature of early kilns was an egg-cup

by:UNIQUE      2020-10-15

Cement kiln is used for making of cement clinker and there are dry and wet methods to make cement. Metallurgy chemical kiln is used in metallurgy industry and ironworks for lean iron ore, chromium ore and ferronickel ore calcimine. Rotary kiln is used for calcimine of high aluminum vandal ochre in refractory material industry; for calcimine of calotte and aluminum hydroxide in aluminum manufacturer; for claiming of chrome sand ore and chrome powder ore in chemical plant.

Lime kiln is used for baking active lime and dolomite in the steel factory and ferroalloy factory.

Cross section of typical early kiln

Only lump stone could be used, because the charge needed to 'breathe' during firing. This also limited the size of kilns and explains why kilns were all much the same size. Above a certain diameter, the half-burned charge would be likely to collapse under its own weight, extinguishing the fire. So kilns always made 25-30 tonnes of lime in a batch. Typically the kiln took a day to load, three days to fire, two days to cool and a day to unload, so a one-week turnaround was normal. The degree of burning was controlled by trial and error from batch to batch by varying the amount of fuel used. Because there were large temperature differences between the center of the charge and the material close to the wall, a mixture of under-burned (i.e. high loss on ignition), well-burned and dead-burned lime was normally produced. Typical fuel efficiency was low, with 0.5 tonnes or more of coal being used per tonne of finished lime (15 MJ/kg).

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